今天是:2019年6月20日 星期四

耿传友 元明清文学专业(2002届)

发布日期: 浏览次数:3079

  汪 道 昆 商 人 传 记 研 究

  目   录

  引  言

  一、时代的必然产物

  ——汪道昆商人传记写作的时代背景与文化土壤

  (一)社会经济的转型与商人群体的崛起

  (二)意识形态的变化与对商贾态度的改变

  (三)徽商故里的浸染与家世的影响

  二、明代徽商活动的踪影

  ——汪道昆商人传记的史料价值

  (一)《太函集》中有关徽商的传记篇目

  (二)对徽商经营活动的记录

  (三)对徽商家庭情况的描述

  三、新旧观念的冲突与融合

  ——汪道昆商人传记中的思想倾向

  (一)重“商”意识与崇“儒”取向

  (二)“义、利”的统一与崇“义”态度

  (三)扬“奢”而崇“俭”的观念

  (四)“贾名而儒行”:新旧观念的整合

  四、复古思潮中的“古文”

  ——汪道昆商人传记的文学价值及其局限性

  (一)题材选择:日常生活的“发现”

  (二)人物塑造:以“动作”展现性格

  (三)情感表达:客观与主观两重笔法

  (四)局限的表现及原因

  余论:汪道昆的商人传记与明中叶后的文学创作走向


  中文摘要:

  汪道昆是明中叶后文坛上具有重要影响的文学家。他的《太函集》有传记235篇,其中为商人而作的112篇,这是很值得注意和重视的文化和文学现象,本文旨在对汪道昆商人传记作一全面的研究。

  第一部分《时代的必然产物》主要探讨汪道昆商人传记写作的时代背景与文化土壤。汪道昆横跨嘉靖、隆庆、万历三朝,正是社会经济发生转型、商人群体的崛起、意识形态发生变化之时,汪道昆又生活在在徽商的故里——徽州,特殊的家世,使他得以与商人有密切的联系。汪道昆的商人传记正是在这样的历史文化背景下创作的。

  第二部分《明代徽商活动的踪影》,主要考察汪道昆商人传记的史料价值。通过对汪道昆商人传记中有关徽商史料的清理,探讨了徽商经营活动的基本方面——重点分析了徽商经营的艰辛与风险,以及徽商特殊的家庭情况。

  第三部分《新旧观念的冲突与融合》,主要分析汪道昆商人传记中的思想倾向。汪道昆商人传记中出现一些矛盾的现象:重“商”意识与崇“儒”取向;“义、利”的统一与崇“义”态度;扬“奢”而崇“俭”的观念。汪道昆对新、旧观念进行了整合,塑造了许多“贾名而儒行”的商人形象。汪道昆商人传记中新旧观念的彼此纽结,既是社会生活矛盾冲突的反映,也有作家自身思想矛盾的原因,是社会转型期一种较为普遍的现象。

  第四部分《复古思潮中的“古文”》,从题材选择、人物塑造、情感表达三个方面论述了汪道昆商人传记的文学价值;同时考察了其文学上的局限,并分析了原因。

  《余论》部分,将汪道昆放在晚明文学的背景中进行考察,指出:汪道昆是一个处在时代十字路口的作家,他的商人传记既反映了时代的变迁、思潮的叠异,又带着传统的痕迹,受到复古思潮的影响。他的商人传记,作为文学作品,难以给予太高的评价;但作为一种文学现象,却很有典型性。因为它们折射了明中叶后文学创作的一般情形。


  Abstract:

  Wang Dao –kun was an influential writer after the middle period of the Ming Dynasty .His collected works “Tai-Han Ji ”obtains 235 biographies, 112 of which are written for businessmen. Such cultural and literary phenomenon merits our attention. This paper aims at a comprehensive study on Wang Dao-kun’s biographies of businessmen.

  Chapter 1 is “Inevitable result of the age ”, examining mainly the background of the age and Wang Dao-kun went through 3 reigns of Jajing, Longqing and Wanli, during which socio-economic pattern was changing, groups of merchants sprang into being, and the ideology was varying. Moreover, Wang lived in Huizhou, the homeland of Huizhou merchants, and his special family background made it possible to keep dose contacts with businessmen .His biographies of merchants were written in such historical and cultural background.

  Chapter 2 is “Operation Trace of Huizhou Merchants in the Ming Dynasty ”, investigating the value of historical materials in Wang’s businessmen biographies .The author straightens up the historical materials about Huizhou merchants up the historical materials about Huizhou merchants in these biographies analyzing the hardships and risks in management and the special family conditions of Huizhou businessmen.
    Chapter 3 is “Conflict and Mixing between old and new concepts ”, focusing on ideological tendency, There are some conflicting phenomena in Wang’s businessmen biographies: He attaches importance on business while admiring Confucianism .He unites moral principles and benefits while still having an attitude of moral worship .He also eulogizes extravagance and economies at the same time, Wang Dao-kun integrates old new ideas and creates many merchants’ images who live as confucianists during management. In Wang’s biographies of merchants during management, In Wang’s biographies of merchants. Old and new concepts twist together. Phenomenon This reflects the conflicts in social life and also results from Wang’s ideological conflicts, It’s very common in periods when the socio –pattern takes changes.
    Chapter 4 is “Classical Prose in the current of thought returning to the ancients”, discussing the literary value of these biographies in 3 parts: choosing themes, creating images and expressing emotion.The author inspects the literary limitations of these biographies and examines their causes.
    Wang Dao-kun was a writer who lived at the crossroads of his age, his biographies reflect the changes of age and the alternations of trend of thought, but still have traditional marks and are affected by the current of thought back to the ancients. His biographies, as literary works, can not be passed a high judgement. However, as a literary phenomenon, they are very typical and reflect a general situation of literature after the middle period of the Ming Dynasty.